Initially, mAbs were recognized as biological tools and were essential for applications in pathological diagnosis and laboratory investigation. Due to specificity in binding, they were used to identify the phenotype of blood cells, and other tissues as well as other diagnostic/imaging techniques, such as immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry and various other. (Weiner 2015) Early research showed that monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) could be easily and efficiently produced through hybridoma technology (a technology that won the Nobel peace prize), allowing them to be applied to the research mentioned earlier. Only 30 years ago were mAb’s proposed as a possible therapeutic for cancer. Initially, murine mAbs were trialled as a cancer treatment, and the results from the study were disappointing. Murine mAbs, are derived from mice, specifically laboratory mice. This led to troubles when administering murine mAbs to humans, due to the suboptimal compatibility of the mAb with the human immune system and low half-life. Specifically, the mAbs had a poor ability to recruit host cell effector functions, as well as poor penetration in tumour sites. Though when able to access those functions it was found that murine mAbs were poor at producing a cytotoxic effect on tumour cells, and generation of complexes that stimulated minimal allergic reactions to full out the anaphylactic shock. This poor interaction and an allergic reaction are known as the human anti-murine antibody (HAMA) response. Despite the setbacks, information was elucidated that showed mAb therapy is possible.
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